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Analysis

Of The

Group Process

Using

The Person Centered Approach

Self-Esteem (Six Sessions)

 

This paper is not for copy, in whole or in part, or for distribution without my express permission. Where permission has been given, please ensure that reference citations to selected passages are given proper recognition.

 

INTRODUCTION

To function at an advanced level of practice as a group facilitator, the professional psychiatric nurse requires skill development, knowledge of theoretical frameworks and an understanding of the group process. Conducting a therapeutic group and providing an analysis of observations noted in acting as a group facilitator provides the beginning foundations of that required advanced level of knowledge, skill development and experience in facilitation of groups.

This paper is an analysis of a therapeutic group conducted using the theoretical framework of Person-Centered Approach, developed by the late Carl Rogers. This analysis includes a description of my individual practice framework based on assumptions of my views related to the person, goals and focus of groups and functions of the group leader. Also included is an analysis and evaluation of the groups conducted, including therapeutic approaches, strategies and activities used during the group process. Additionally, an analysis of my individual leadership, including my strengths and areas for improvement is provided using feedback from participants, a peer observer and me. Finally, an analysis of group outcomes and identification of alternative approaches to improve group effectiveness will be explored.

The first section of this paper looks at my individual practice framework, including my views and assumptions of the person, goals and focus of groups, and functions of a group leader with integration of relevant theory.

MY PRACTICE FRAMEWORK

In determining my individual practice framework, theoretical frameworks as outlined in Gunderson, Mossing and Ting (1997, pp. 2-4-3-30) were examined, and responses to a self-assessment guide provided for each framework was completed. Completion of these self-assessment guides assisted in determining which theoretical framework most fit my own theoretical orientation.

The theoretical framework, with which I most agreed was the Person-Centered Approach, developed by the late Carl Rogers. In response to the ten questions posed in the self-assessment guide, I agreed with all ten assumptions. These assumptions as noted in Gunderson, Mossing and Ting include:

  1. "Human abilities, aspirations, and achievements in earthly life are important. The client's inner, subjective world must be understood.
  2. Group leaders emphasize self-understanding, self-determination and responsibility.
  3. The whole person, not only the specific disease or problem, should receive attention.
  4. Therapists demonstrate an accepting approach toward clients and believe that the client has the basic ability to make his own decisions about health care.
  5. Leaders who demonstrate empathy, warmth, respect, acceptance, positive regard, and genuineness will facilitate personal growth and change in group members.
  6. A group leader must establish a climate of trust in a group. Self-disclosure on the leader's part will promote trust and openness on the part of the members.
  7. A group will move in a constructive direction because each group has the potential for self-direction. Leaders no not provide structure or direction as direct intervention interferes with group process.
  8. The overall emotional tone of any group is greatly affected by the warmth and empathy displayed by the leader
  9. Active listening is a primary interactive skill that effective group facilitators employ.
  10. Concepts related to transference or countertransference are not important in group work" (1997, p. 2-33).

As my views, and assumptions, about the person are consistent with the person-centered approach, I will delineate these views of the person, basic assumptions about the person, goals and focus of groups and functions of the group facilitator in relation to the Person-Centered Approach to groups.

View of the Person

A basic fundamental view that I hold is that the person has a desire, potential, and capacity to be self-actualizing through personal growth. In describing the view of the person, Corey states that "the person-centered approach is grounded on the assumption that human being tend to move toward wholeness and self-actualization" (1995, p. 263). According to Rogers (cited in Corey, 1995) "there is a formative tendency in nature, or a central source of energy that seeks fulfillment and actualization, involving both maintaining and enhancing the organism" (264). Johnson continues by noting "inherent in Rogerian theory is the belief that change and growth can take place at any age" (1986, p. 194). This view of the person is expanded to encompass a group situation in which Corey notes "human beings tend to move toward wholeness and self-actualization and that individual members, as well as the group as a whole, can find their own direction with a minimal degree of help from the group leader" (p. 263).

Basic Assumptions about the Person

Within the Person-Centered framework, a relationship exists between existential and humanistic psychology. In a discussion of the relationship between existential and humanistic psychology and the Person-Centered approach, Corey notes there is a focus on "the capacities unique to humans: love, freedom, choice, creativity, purpose, relatedness, meaning, values, growth, self-actualization, autonomy, responsibility, ego transcendence, humor, and spontaneity" (1995, p. 264). Corey further notes that "any therapy that aims at growth must take these human capacities into account" (pp. 264-265). These unique capacities are consistent with my belief that the whole person should be the focus of attention and not any one specific part. In describing the connection between the Person-Centered approach and humanistic psychology, Corey states "Maslow's concept of the self-actualizing person is compatible with Rogers's notion of the formative tendency" (p. 265). Having discussed the similarities of existential and humanistic theory important differences are now noted. Corey notes "the central difference between existential psychotherapy and humanistic psychotherapy is philosophical" (p. 266). In describing the humanistic approach, Corey states "we are seen as having certain basic needs that impel us in this self-actualizing direction" (p. 266). Corey continues by stating "the person-centered approach of the humanist, Rogers, assumes that if positive and nurturing conditions are provided, we will automatically grow in positive ways" (p. 266). Existential thinkers in contrast as noted by Corey "would not agree that we even have any sort of essential nature or basic needs, nor would they agree that much of anything will happen in life automatically" (p. 266). Corey further indicates "where humanists see needs, existentialists see choices: where humanists see the prospect of positive and automatic growth, existentialists see the anxiety of being free and the equal possibilities for growth and decay" (p. 266).

Goals and Focus of Groups

According to Rogers (cited in Corey, 1995) "the person centered-approach rests on a basic trust in human beings' tendency to realize their full potential"(p. 267). Corey notes that "similarly, person-centered therapy is based on a deep sense of trust in the group's ability to develop its own potential by moving in a constructive direction" (1995, p. 267). For this forward movement of the group, Corey indicates "it must develop an accepting attitude and trusting atmosphere in which the members can show aspects of themselves that they usually conceal and move into new behaviours" (p. 267). This is fitting with my belief a group will move in its own direction, find purpose and grow without a lot of direction from a group leader. It is an expansion of my view of the individual to that of a group. Goals of the group are related to goals of the individual. In describing the focus of the group, Corey notes members "move:

This focus, noted by Corey, is supported by Beck, Rawlins and Williams indicating that the group focus in the person-centered approach is "affective, gaining awareness; perceptions of oneself and one's world, unconditional positive acceptance of oneself and others, responsibility for oneself and self actualization" (1984, p. 687).

Goals of the person-centered group are:

Functions of the Group Facilitator

Throughout my description of the person-centered approach, the term facilitator is preferred to that of leader. One reason for this distinction as noted by Corey is "the term facilitator reflects the importance of interactions between group members. The role of the facilitator is to create a climate under which the actualizing tendency will be released" (1995, pp. 276-277). Corey expands the idea by stating "the person-centered approach emphasizes the personal qualities of the group leader rather than techniques of leading" (p. 263).

In the person-centered approach, the facilitator functions to provide necessary conditions for growth of individual members and the group as a whole. According to Rogers (cited in Corey, 1995) "individuals have within themselves vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes, and self-directed behaviour; these resources can be tapped if a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided" (p.267). This definable climate, according to Rogers, (cited in Corey, 1995) "is characterized by three primary attitudes of the therapist: genuineness, unconditional positive regard (now called "nonpossessive warmth" or acceptance), and empathy" (p. 267). Corey notes this emphasis on the qualities of the group leader is "to create a fertile and healing climate within the group" (1995, p. 263). As the attitudes of genuineness, unconditional positive regard and empathy represent the core conditions of the facilitator's functions, each will be examined individually and in-depth.

Genuineness

As one of the core conditions required for the forward movement of the individual and the group, Corey indicates "the greater the extent to which facilitators become involved in the group as persons, putting up no professional front, the greater is the likelihood that the members will change and grow" (1995, p. 267). As described by Corey, genuineness means that "what the therapist expresses externally is congruent with his or her inner experience, at least during the time of therapy" (p. 269). Therefore, according to Corey "genuine therapists don't pretend to be interested when they are not, don't fake attention or understanding, don't say what they don't mean, and don't adopt behaviors designed to win approval" (p. 269). As Corey notes, genuineness of the facilitator allows the facilitator to "perform their professional functions without hiding behind their professional roles" (p. 269). In noting the importance of congruence, Natiello (cited in Corey, 1995) states "without congruence the other therapeutic conditions are then offered inauthentically and become mere techniques, which are meaningless, manipulative, and controlling" (p. 269).

For the facilitator to maintain genuineness, according to Natiello (cited in Corey, 1995) "therapists need a high level of self-awareness, self-acceptance, and self-trust" (p. 269). This requirement of self-awareness, self-acceptance, and self-trust results from what Corey describes as "a state of authenticity that results from a deep exploration of self and a willingness to accept the truths of this exploration" (1995, p. 269).

In discussing the boundaries of genuineness, Corey states "genuine therapists, although they are essentially honest in their encounters in the group, are not indiscriminately open, and they know the boundaries of appropriate self-revelation" (1995, p. 270). In recognizing the boundaries of genuineness, Corey states "although genuineness implies that leaders are internally congruent (which means that they are not self-deceptive), they do not always share all their feelings and thoughts, since that would not be appropriate or therapeutic at certain times" (p. 270).

Unconditional Positive Regard

The second core element of therapeutic conditions necessary for growth is unconditional positive regard. Corey describes this element as "an acceptance of and caring for the members" (1995, p. 268). This unconditional positive regard, as noted by Corey "involves communicating a caring that is unconditional and that is not contaminated by evaluation or judgement of the client's feelings and thoughts" (p. 270). Associated with the attitude of unconditional positive regard, as Corey notes "is an attitude of nonpossessive caring and warmth--namely, an attitude that is not dependent on the therapist's own need for approval and appreciation and that can be expressed in subtle ways" (pp. 270-271). These subtleties as Corey notes includes "gestures, eye contact, tone of voice, and facial expression" (p. 271). In noting the importance of these subtle behaviours, Corey states "a genuine expression of caring can be sensed by clients and will promote their development" (p. 271). Conversely, Corey notes "artificial warmth can be as readily perceived and is likely to inhibit the client's change and growth" (p. 271).

Unconditional positive regard is an acceptance of the person for who, what and why they are, with respect to their individual makeup as a person and as an individual. This regard as Corey mentions "is not to be confused with approval; therapists can accept and value their clients as separate persons, with a right to their separateness, without necessarily approving of some of their behavior" (1995, p. 270).

In extrapolating unconditional positive regard of individuals to the group experience, Corey indicates "related to the concept of accepting the individual group member with unconditional positive regard, caring and warmth is the idea of developing an attitude of acceptance of the group as a whole" (1995, p. 271). Corey indicates "just as Rogers believes in the capacity of the individual to find his or her own direction, so does he believe in accepting a group where it is" (p. 271). Rogers in citing his own work with groups (cited in Corey, 1995) states "I know that if I attempt to push a group to a deeper level, it is not, in the long run, going to work" (p. 271).

In examining the difficulties presented in the facilitator accepting an unconditional positive regard for individuals and the group as a whole, Corey states "it is not necessary to feel a high level of warmth and positive regard all the time in order to be an effective group leader" (1995, pp. 217-272). Corey continues by stating "these attitudes are not an either/or condition; rather, they occur on a continuum of gradations" (p. 272). Being an effective facilitator as noted by Corey "starts by accepting oneself and continues by bearing in mind that the greater the degree of valuing, caring, and accepting of a client, the greater the opportunity to facilitate change in the client" (p. 272).

Empathy

The third central concept of the person-centered approach is empathy. In describing empathy, Corey notes "it is a way for therapists to hear the meanings expressed by their clients that often lie at the edge of their awareness" (1995, p. 273). This expansion of the clients awareness as noted by Natiello, (cited in Corey, 1995) occurs when "these precognitive meanings are understood and communicated by a facilitator who is able to encourage them to experience what they are feeling and thinking more deeply" (p. 273). Corey indicates "that a special kind of listening with one's total being is a crucial part of achieving empathy" (1995, p. 273). This special listening as described by Corey "involves suspending judgment of others" (1995, p. 273). Barrett-Lennard (cited in Corey, 1995) indicates this special type of listening "is not done to gain personal advantage or with an ulterior motive" (p. 273).

The group facilitator in an attempt to achieve empathy may, as described by Corey "mistakenly assume that unless they themselves have directly experienced the same problems voiced by group members, they can't be empathic" (1995, p. 274). In recognition of this mistaken assumption, Corey states "such an assumption can severely limit the leader's potential sphere of influence" (p. 274).

Attributes of the Facilitator

The person-centered approach is more about the attributes and skills of the facilitator than any one technique to be used in the group process. These skills as defined by Corey (1995, p. 277) have been expanded upon to convey an improved understanding. These skills are:

  1. Listening actively and sensitively. This activity is the foundation of therapeutic communication. This skill requires energy in the form of concentration. Active listening minimizes distractions, conveys objectivity, is not evaluative in nature in terms of agreeing or disagreeing and focuses on the clients expressed thoughts or feeling.
  2. Reflecting. Is an indicator of the facilitator's level of listening skills. It clarifies the participants thoughts, feelings and needs. Reflecting is useful in it assists in the formation of a trusting relationship. Trust develops as the client receives the message that expressed thoughts, feelings and needs is being received empathetically.
  3. Summarizing. This skill allows the facilitator and client to examine themes that may be present during interactions. It is effective for reviewing progress, which has been made between the facilitator, the group member and the group as a whole.
  4. Sharing of Personal Experiences. This is self-disclosure. Sharing of personal experiences allows the facilitator to reinforce genuine regard and respect for the client. While the person centered approach uses, self-disclosure as a means of becoming a group member for the facilitator, such disclosures must not become the focus of the group.
  5. Encountering and engaging others in the group.
  6. Going with the flow of the group rather than trying to direct the way the group is going. In the person-centered group process, the facilitator is to be a group participant. The facilitators aim is to be directive in approach instead of using techniques to achieve an outcome.
  7. Affirming a participant's capacity for self-determination. This is one of the foundations of the person-centered approach. The belief that humans are forward moving towards self actualization is to be reinforced as this is one of the goals of the group.

The skills described by Corey (1995, 277) are an essential aspect and fundamental to being a professional psychiatric nurse. The skills described are not new to psychiatric nursing and have been described by others (Peplau, 1992), (Forchuck, 1993) as essential to any communication between the psychiatric nurse and the client. Of equal interest and importance, these skills meet criteria as outlined by the Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice of the Registered Psychiatric Nurses Association of British Columbia (1995).

The next section is an analysis and evaluation of the therapeutic group I conducted using the person-centered approach.

ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE GROUP

As indicated in the original proposal for this group, it was a secondary group given it's self help nature. It was heterogeneous in participants differed in age, gender and clinical diagnosis. The group structure was informal. Although the structure was informal, some structural constraints were placed upon the group.

The group was closed and was to consist of six members. However, the number of participants increased to seven as other clients expressed an interest in participating in the group. Membership within the group was voluntary and was of interest to clients willing to engage in self-exploration, forward movement and a desire for self-actualization. The number of sessions was increased from four to six due to the interest of the participants.

Group Goals, Objectives and Expected Outcomes

This section delineates the goals, objectives and expected outcomes for the group as defined in the original group proposal. The group conducted ran for six sessions, and as such, goals, objectives and expected outcomes were less than what would be expected of a group lasting twelve sessions or more.

Objectives

Each group participant upon completion of the group will:

Goals

Each participant in the group will:

Therapeutic Procedures and Techniques

This section discusses the therapeutic approaches including ground rules and techniques used with the proposed group. First examined is the ground rules followed by approaches, strategies and activities used for this group.

Ground Rules

Ground rules for the group consisted of:

  1. Confidentiality of group activity is an expectation of participants including the facilitator. Information provided or elicited remains within the group. Disclosure of information outside the group is prohibited. This includes key and secondary workers. Confidentiality is paramount. Participants are expected and encouraged to discuss openly their thoughts, feelings and needs. An atmosphere of trust must exist for this to occur. Participants not honoring group confidentiality results in expulsion from the group.
  2. Participants must attend regularly and be on time for all groups. Failure to attend or lateness on a continuing basis without prior permission results in membership termination. Attendance and promptness indicates commitment to the group. Continued absence and lateness interrupts the group process resulting in other being unable to achieve the goals and objectives of the group.
  3. Members should actively participate. They should be open in their discussion of their thoughts, feelings and needs. This openness should be honest and meaningful to the disclosing member. Meaningful input to and from other participants is encouraged.
  4. Participants will focus on their individual thoughts, feelings and needs. Intellectual and philosophical discussions are discouraged. Focus will be on the here and now. This encourages verbalization of thoughts and feelings occurring during the group.
  5. A supportive environment within the group is encouraged. Verbalization of criticism regarding the group is encouraged providing criticism is constructive.
  6. Challenging or confrontation of participant's behaviours within the group is encouraged. Other Participants including the facilitator may challenge or confront. This challenge or confrontation is for the exclusive purpose of achieving congruence to individual expression of thoughts or feelings.
  7. The focus of this group does not include problem solving. It is only for the exploration, encouragement and expression of participant thoughts, feelings and needs.
  8. Restatement of ground rules occurs throughout the group process as required

Approaches, Strategies and Techniques Used

Techniques used in this group was based on the cornerstones of the person-centered approach identified by Corey (1995, pp. 267-273) genuineness, unconditional positive regard and acceptance of the client and empathy. Corey notes "as the facilitator projects these attitudes and an accepting and caring climate emerges, it is presumed, members will drop their defenses and work toward personally meaningful goals, a process that will eventually lead to appropriate and useful behavioral change" (p. 263). The person-centered approach is more about the attributes and skills of the facilitator than any one technique to be used in the group process. Skills I employed during the self-esteem group as those, which are defined by Corey (p. 277). These skills defined by Corey have been expanded upon to convey an improved understanding. These skills are:

  1. Listening actively and sensitively. This activity is the foundation of therapeutic communication. This skill requires energy in the form of concentration. Active listening minimizes distractions, conveys objectivity, is not evaluative in nature in terms of agreeing or disagreeing and focuses on the clients expressed thoughts or feeling.
  2. Reflecting. Is an indicator of the facilitator's level of listening skills. It clarifies the participants thoughts, feelings and needs. Reflecting is useful in it assists in the formation of a trusting relationship. Trust develops as the client receives the message that expressed thoughts, feelings and needs is being received empathetically.
  3. Summarizing. This skill allows the facilitator and client to examine themes that may be present during interactions. It is effective for reviewing progress, which has been made between the facilitator, the group member and the group as a whole.
  4. Sharing of Personal Experiences. This is self-disclosure. Sharing of personal experiences allows the facilitator to reinforce genuine regard and respect for the client. While the person centered approach uses, self-disclosure as a means of becoming a group member for the facilitator, such disclosures must not become the focus of the group.
  5. Encountering and engaging others in the group.
  6. Going with the flow of the group rather than trying to direct the way the group is going. In the person-centered group process, the facilitator is to be a group participant. The facilitators aim is to be directive in approach instead of using techniques to achieve an outcome.
  7. Affirming a participant's capacity for self-determination. This is one of the foundations of the person-centered approach. The belief that humans are forward moving towards self actualization is to be reinforced as this is one of the goals of the group.

Before the first session of the group, an information session was held with all members in attendance. Corey notes that one important function of the group leader is "arranging for a preliminary group session for the purposes of getting acquainted, presenting ground rules, and preparing the members for a successful group experience" (1995, p. 94). This pre-group meeting was used for participants to become familiar with the ground rules, goals and objectives of the group. As our session numbers were limited, I felt that using a pre-group meeting could deal with many issues in advance so that the work of the group could be facilitated more quickly. As part of the pre-group meeting, a self-assessment scale adapted and modified as found in Corey (p. 47) was completed by all members of the group including me (Appendices A). The purpose of this assessment was to determine the perceptions of individual members, and how they saw themselves participating in a group setting. This self-assessment scale was to assist me in determining individual member's potential levels of participation.

At the end of each group session, a questionnaire was completed by the participants (Appendices B) as adapted and modified and found in Corey (1995, p. 49) and me (Appendices C) as adapted and modified and found in Corey (pp. 51-52). Completion of this questionnaire afforded me the opportunity, to gauge the perceptions of the participant's individual participation in the group. It also allowed me to evaluate my perceptions of my participation as a group member. As Corey notes "one of the best ways of preparing for effective group leadership is to first become an effective group member" (p. 47). Completing the end of session questionnaire with the other group members was one way of letting them know that I was a participating member within the group. The perceptions held by the participants and I, of how we saw ourselves in the group, gave me a snapshot of the overall thoughts and feelings of the group for each individual session.

At the conclusion of the group each member, including the peer observer, and myself completed an end of group questionnaire (Appendices D) as adapted and modified and found in Corey (1995, pp. 50-51). Completion of this questionnaire provided me with an overview of each participant's perceptions of the overall group and provided me with insight into my own participation and abilities as a group facilitator.

Identification of Common Group Behaviours

This section examines identified behaviours of the group participants, which are indicative of the phases of group development. Phases of group development refers to characteristics, behaviours, actions, thoughts and feelings of group participants that are characteristic of the orientation, working and termination phases of the group process. The first for examination is the pre-group meeting. The orientation, working and termination phases of the group process are examined afterwards.

Pre-Group Meeting

Some of the main tasks of group leaders during the formation of a group as noted by Corey are:

During the formation period of the group, a proposal was prepared and submitted first to my tutor for approval. Once the proposal was approved, the proposal was submitted to the manager of care and the executive director of my facility.

I announced the group at a resident's meeting and a sign up sheet was affixed to the resident bulletin board. Twelve clients expressed interest in participation in the group. Originally I had sought six members but allowed seven members to join the group. The first seven names on the sign-up sheet were selected. I checked with the manager of care to ensure that the library facilities would be available for the stated group time and she indicated it would be available. Meetings were held with the group nurse for Pioneer House. During these meetings, discussions were held as to the format of the group and the theoretical approach that would be used.

The pre-group meeting (session #1) commenced on November 09, 1998 at the scheduled time with all participants present. The pre-group meeting lasted one hour and ten minutes.

During the pre-group meeting, I first thanked all participants for their involvement and expressed an interest and desire in working the group over the next four sessions. I then introduced myself and requested that the other participants introduce themselves. I revealed to the group that I was a student in the advanced diploma in psychiatric nursing program at Douglas College and informed the participants that learning about the group process was part of the studies I was undertaking.

After the introductions, each participant, including the peer observer, was given an information package. This package included the ground rules of the group, the goals and objectives and the evaluation tools that would be used.

Once the information package was distributed, as a group, we began going through the ground rules. Each ground rule was dealt with individually. With respect to the issue of confidentiality, and in conforming to facility policy, it was explained that participants could discuss their own participation in the group with their key and secondary workers. However, a request was made, that should they discuss their participation, every effort should be made to discuss only their participation, and not the participation of other members. All members were in agreement with this request.

After outlining the objectives, and the goals of the group, I asked the group what their goals and objectives were in attending the group. W.B. indicated that she was with the group to learn more about herself and to increase her self-esteem. K.J. indicated that she too was also interested in learning more about herself and expressed a desire to not only increase her self-esteem but also was interested in learning ways in which she could achieve this goal. C.C. stated that he joined the group to hear what others could offer in the way of suggestions to improve his self-esteem. T.M. indicated that he had difficulty participating in groups and was interested in seeing how others participated so that he might learn from others as to how he could increase his participation in ongoing groups at Pioneer House. R.M. reported that he like T.M. had difficulty expressing himself in group situations and was hopeful this experience would improve his ability to actively participate in a group. D.D. indicated that he wanted to just observe others in the group and didn't feel that he had anything to contribute. W.B. responded to this by stating "everyone has something to contribute. Don't sell yourself short". D.D. smiled and nodded his head in response. W.B. continued by stating "I've been in all of Debbie's groups and I've helped her lead lots of the groups, so I know that everyone has something to offer to the group". This comment by W.B. was one way of letting me and the other participants of the group that she too had leadership skills, had co-lead other groups and in a sense established herself not only as a leader, but set up a pecking order. This pecking order was established by indicating how many groups she had attended and even though D.D. indicated that he had nothing to offer to the group, she insisted that based on her experience that he would be a contributing member. The establishment of a pecking order, competition and struggles for leadership is consistent with Shutz's phases of group development. These phases of development (cited in Gunderson, Mossing and Ting, 1997) indicate that during the control phase "competition is seen among the members, there may be struggles for leadership, and concerns about procedure" (p. 5-3). B.L. reported that he was part of the group to see "if there was anything more he could learn about self-esteem". I explained to the group that I was interested in learning about how I functioned and participated in a group. I shared that by gaining an awareness of how I functioned and participated in a group, I would be better able to understand how a group works and I would be able to use this insight to function as a group member and facilitator in future groups. Corey notes that at a pre-group meeting it is "useful to ask members to talk about their expectations, their reasons for being in the group, their fears about participating, and their hopes" (1995, p. 93).

Many of the participants made connections with other participants when the discussion was focused on the reasons, goals and objectives of the member's participation in the self-esteem group. Most cited similar reasons for participating in the group and some expanded their reasons for participation after stating the similarity then had in terms of purpose with other group members.

With everyone providing their individual reason for attending the group, I provided a summarization of what had occurred within our pre-group meeting. In summarizing, I stated "today we have reviewed the group rules or the norms of the group and discussed the purpose, objectives and goals of this group. In hearing everyone's goals and objectives, as a group, we have many of the same reasons for being part of this group. I would like to mention that we have an advantage in our group. The advantage is that we are all familiar with one another so there is a certain level of comfort amongst all of us within the group. Before closing the group, I mentioned that I would like all group participants to complete the self-assessment scale. C.C. asked the question "do we have to put our names on it?" To this, I responded that it was not necessary. I explained that the assessments were to be used only to gauge participant involvement and identification of the participant was not necessary. I informed members that the completed assessments and evaluations would form part of a formal paper that would be prepared as a requirement of my course in group process. I further indicated that in the paper, no names would be used, only initials and that the information provided from the assessments and evaluations would not be shared with the workers or management of the facility. It was stated that the evaluations would remain confidential. In discussing ways of maintaining trust, Corey notes "talking about matters such as the rights of participants, the necessity of confidentiality and the need for respecting others demonstrates that the leader has a serious attitude toward the group" (1995, p. 96). After this statement, all participants, including I, completed the self-assessment scale (Appendices E). Once completed, the assessments were placed on a back counter in the room in no particular order or sequence.

The completed self-assessment scales provided valuable insight to the perceptions of how participants saw themselves interacting in group situations and settings. All members indicated they saw themselves as being active and contributing members of a group. Almost all were willing to raise personal concerns and to raise these concerns within a group setting. The widest divide was the question of sharing perceptions of others by telling them how they were seen and how they affected them. There was an even split among the members. The majority of members considered themselves willing to listen to others and to respond to them, were willing to confront others with care yet directly and expressed a willingness to express feelings and reactions to what was occurring within the group. Almost all participants were willing to work at creating and maintaining a sense of trust and a majority was willing to support others in the group at appropriate times.

The individual perceptions of the participants provided a profile of the group and how they might interact together. The assessments indicated that an active, trusting, contributing, confronting and supportive environment would be the setting for the self-esteem group.

With the pre-group having occurred, the stage was set for the group to move into the orientation and exploration phase of group development.

Orientation and Exploration Phase

The second meeting of the group commenced on November 12, 1998 at the scheduled time with all participants present. This session lasted one hour.

The group started by my thanking the participants for their attendance and stating that it was nice to see everyone present. I provided a brief recap of what we had done and discussed in our last meeting. All participants sat in the same chairs as the first meeting. Without direction, K.J. began the meeting by talking about how mental illness affects her self-esteem. She spoke about having lost her job within the past year and said that this was a significant blow to her self-esteem. She then related the humiliation and indignity that she had experienced when she was ill and that she had been placed in a side locked room at the general hospital. She spoke of the humiliation of having to disrobe in front of strangers and being left to lay on a mattress on the floor with only a blanket to cover herself. She also stated that at the time, she was paranoid and that the video camera set up in the ceiling to monitor her movements created more tension and stress for her. She further noted that she was not violent, she was paranoid and frightened. This quick introduction of a topic demonstrates the interplay of roles, which occur within a group. Rogers notes that "there is a fascinating, and therapeutically very important, interplay of roles in group therapy" (1951, p. 309). According to Rogers "a member may introduce a theme and pursue its development with the assistance not only of the group leader but of other members as well" (1951, p. 309). C.C acknowledged what she had said by nodding his head and he too had been locked in a side room at the hospital for several days. He reported having the same feelings that K.J. had experienced. He said that he could not understand his being locked in a side room because he was not violent. He stated he was paranoid, frightened and the side room made him feel worse. T.M. added to the conversation that he also had been in a side room but related that he had been violent and was taken to the hospital in handcuffs by the police. W.B. then stated to the group that she had not experienced being put in a side room but acknowledged that it must have been an awful, terrifying and frightening experience. This discussion of individual experiences was one way of searching for and finding similarity amongst the group members. Similarity is one way in which group members can begin the formation of the bonds of trust. In his discussion of trust within a group setting, Corey notes "that establishing trust is vital to the continued development of the group" (1995, p. 96). In a discussion of acceptance of others, Rogers notes "as a client moves toward being able to accept his own experience, he also moves toward the acceptance of the experience of others" (1961, p. 174). R.M. remained silent and offered nothing to the conversation. D.D. also remained silent and offered nothing to the conversation. B.L remained silent and offered nothing to the group. I then provided reflection and clarification of what I had heard. I stated that several people had shared their individual experiences with the group regarding their experiences with mental health emergency services in the hospital and acknowledged that these experiences for them was not positive in that they felt stripped of their dignity and had found the experience quite humiliating. I then shared with the group that it sounded like when then needed compassion and understanding that they had not received it. Corey notes "with regard to empathy-both cognitive and affective-you can create a therapeutic situation by being able to see and understand the world from the internal vantage point of the members" (p. 98). I also expressed that as a psychiatric nurse I felt uncomfortable and a little embarrassed in hearing how they had been treated at a time when they needed understanding and compassion. I reflected that these experiences must have been difficult and I could certainly understand how this could affect their self-esteem. According to Corey in discussing ways to maintain trust within a group, he notes "members need to know and feel that it is acceptable to have and express negative feelings" (p. 97). C.C. expressed gratitude in hearing my comments. He thought that all psychiatric nurses were uncompassionate and interested only in power and control. K.J. indicated that it was comforting in hearing the experiences of other group members as she realized that she was not alone in her experience or feelings. At this point C.C. asked permission to leave the room as he stated "the feelings are too overwhelming and I think I need a prn". C.C. was excused from the group. In his absence, there was silence among the group. Upon his return to the group, I inquired if he was feeling well enough to continue with the group. In other discussions related to trust, Corey indicates that "leaders who show that they are interested in the welfare of individual members and of the group as a whole engender trust" (p. 96). He stated that he was and appreciated my concern for his well being. This ended the meeting.

As Corey notes "group cohesion and trust are gradually established if members are willing to express what they are thinking and feeling" (1995, p. 101). Several of the members openly discussed their thoughts and feelings and this is indicative of the formation of cohesion and trust within the group. In a discussion of the working phase of a group, Johnson notes "members are already familiar with each other, with the group leader, and with the group's rules, they are free to approach their problems and to attempt to solve their problems" (1986, p. 195). Within this session of the group, this aspect of a working phase was evident. It should be noted that this could be the result that all of the members are familiar with one another, have all participated in group activities together on previous occasions, and were familiar with the facilitator.

With the closing of the meeting, I added the following remarks "Today many of us spoke about experiences that resulted in a lowering of our self-esteem. There was a lot of sharing of personal experiences and expression of concern for the feelings of others. In openly talking about our personal experiences, we discovered that there is similarity of experiences within the group. Another point is that in openly talking about our personal experiences, a certain amount of trust has developed within the group, which brings all of us closer together". Although typically occurring during the working phase of a group, I identified common themes within the group. Corey indicates that the leader is "looking for common themes among members' work that provide for some universality" (1995, p. 123). The group members were also allowed to find their own direction in terms of where the group was going. As Corey notes "the group as a whole, can find their won direction with a minimal degree of help from the group leader" (1995, p. 263). As a facilitator, I used the skills of active listening, clarifying and summarizing. In acknowledging, their feelings related to being involuntary clients in a locked room the use of empathy was used to convey an understanding and concern for the client's experience.

All participants, including I, completed the self-assessment scale (Appendices F, G). Once completed, the assessments, again, were placed on a back counter in the room in no particular order or sequence.

The self-assessment scales completed by the participants and me indicate that overall, members felt understood and understanding of others participants. The majority of the members felt independent and I felt competent in my role as participant and facilitator. There is an almost even split in members feelings distant and close to other members. I had a feeling of closeness as a participant and as the facilitator. In terms of involvement, members felt either very involved or quite uninvolved. Most members felt somewhat to quite prepared for the group meeting. I was midline in terms of feeling tense in acting as both a participant and facilitator. Overall, there was a feeling of competitiveness within the group, whereas I felt more co-operative as a member and facilitator. Overall, most members expressed feelings towards passiveness in interacting within the group. The majority of members saw themselves as being moderately to very helpful towards other members.

With the beginning development of trust and cohesion among the group members, the next section is an analysis of observations of the working phase of the self-esteem group.

Working Phase

The third meeting of the group commenced on November 18, 1998 at the scheduled time with all the participants present. This session lasted one hour and fifteen minutes.

At the beginning of the meeting, I announced that we had only one session left together before the end of the group. As noted by Corey "it is essential that termination issues be brought up early in the course of a group's history" (1995, p. 123). Before being able to continue, B.L. brought up the issue of trust. He stated that he saw this as something significant we should discuss as a group and felt that it was related to issues of self-esteem. C.C. quickly responded by stating that trust was something that was earned and not something that was just handed over on a silver platter. C.C. then went on to talk about how he personally did not trust many people and noted that the stigma of mental illness made it difficult for him to trust people because he felt pre-judged. He also indicated that he felt people in the group were not really listening to him and he felt that the group was not being real in their expression of their feelings. He stated "we are talking about a bunch of superficial bullshit and I am tired of it. Are we ever going to talk about important issues?" B.L. responded by stating that C.C. was too self-absorbed and it was he who did not listen to what others had said. B.L. noted that C.C. only wanted to talk about himself and was not interested in listening to what others had to say. C.C. responded by noting that "I always listen to what the other person has to say, I never put myself first". He then solicited the perceptions of other group members. K.J. indicated that she too felt that C.C. was domineering in conversation and was unwilling to listen to the thoughts, feelings and opinions of other group members. She indicated that this behaviour extended beyond the confines of the group and was something he did with everyone he met at Pioneer House. In K.J. noting that this behavior extended beyond that of the group, was venting persistent long-standing feelings. Rogers notes that "an individual finds it satisfying in the long run to express any strong or persistent emotional attitudes in the situation in which they arise, to the person with whom there are concerned, and to the depth to which they exist" (1961, p. 327). These behaviours are indicative of the transition stage of the group process. As Corey notes "people may be quite judgmental of others and yet unwilling to open up to the perceptions that others have of them" (1995, p. 103). The exchange between C.C. and B.L. as noted by Yalom (cited in Corey, 1995) demonstrates "the struggle for control and is an integral part of every group" (p. 104). This expression of negative feelings, according to Rogers (cited in Corey, 1995) is one way to test the freedom and trustworthiness of the group" (p. 104). All remaining members of the group maintained silence. C.C. expressed surprise that this is how people saw him and stated that during the group he would try to maintain an interest in what others were saying and feeling. He encouraged others to challenge him when they thought he was being too self-centered. C.C. then looked directly at R.M. and D.D. and stated "neither of you has much to contribute to the group, why are you here?" As Corey notes "certain behaviors tend to elicit negative feelings that reflect conflict" (p. 104). One of these behaviours noted by Corey is "dominating the group, using sarcasm, belittling the efforts that are being made, and demanding attention" (1995, p. 104). Another of these behaviours as noted by Corey is "remaining aloof and hiding behind the stance of observer" (p. 104). This is what was occurring with the two non-participating members. R.M. responded by stating "I don't have a lot to say right now. When I have something to say I will say it". According to Rogers not all people "will find it easier to talk in a group; while some may talk readily and other learn that it is safe to talk, a few may remain quiet, with no risks taken, throughout the sessions" (1951, p. 292). C.C. responded that was fair enough. He noted that the lack of participation by R.M. and D.D. was giving others the impression that he was monopolizing the conversation and direction of the group. I indicated that while the expression of negative feelings was accepted and expected of group members, attacking group members was not acceptable. I noted that attacking behaviour is destructive and does not lead to productive work for the group. I noted that members of the group were expressing intense feelings. I indicated that sometimes when a group is coming to end, that there is a rush to deal with important and unfinished business. I indicated that the expression of negative feelings were part of the group developing cohesion and trust but reminded the members that challenges to others should be constructive to facilitate growth and forward movement of the group as a whole. This ended the third session of the group.

In summarizing, I noted that "the issue of trust had been raised and that it elicited very strong emotional feelings within the group today. In recognizing trust as an important issue to us all it was something worth spending sometime on. I suggested to the group members that as only one session was left, I inquired how the group felt about extending the group for an additional two sessions so that we could more fully explore the issue of trust and how this affects our self-esteem". Five out of the seven members were receptive to this idea while two expressed no interest in continuing with the group for the additional two sessions. I then asked the five interested members if they would be willing to continue the group with the remaining five members for the additional two sessions. All five agreed this is something they would like to do.

Behaviours observed in this group meeting was indicative of the transition phase and working phases of group development. In terms of the working phase, Corey notes "this is the time when participants need to realize that they are responsible for their lives. Thus they must be encouraged to decide what issues to explore in the group, they need to learn how to become an integral part of the group and yet retain their individuality, and they must filter the feedback they received and decide what they will do about it" (1995. P. 110). This occurred with C.C. in trying to determine what issues he wanted to explore within the group. As indicated in the exchange between him and B.L. he took the feedback provided and decided that he would attempt to change his behaviours while in the group. Skills used by me in this session included clarifying, reflecting, summarizing and confrontation.

All participants, including I, completed the self-assessment scale (Appendices H, I). Once completed, the assessments, again, were placed on a back counter in the room in no particular order or sequence.

The self-assessment scales completed by the members and me indicate that overall, members felt misunderstood by others yet felt understanding of other members. Most members felt independent to moderately independent with only one member feeling more dependent. This sense of independence is interesting given the confrontational dynamics and monopolization of the group by just a couple of members. At the same time, most members felt close to one another, this despite the limited participation of most due to the domination of a couple of the members. There is an even divide among members feeling involved and uninvolved in the group. An explanation for this feeling according to Rogers is "while some may talk readily and other learn that it is safe to talk, a few may remain quiet, with no risks taken, throughout the session" (1951, p. 292). A majority of members expressed feeling moderately to well prepared for this session. In addition, a majority felt passive and moderately to of little help to other members.

Within the continued building of trust and cohesion among the group, the members continue to develop and grow within the working phase of the group.

Working Phase Continued

The fourth meeting of the group commenced on November 19, 1998 at the scheduled time with all participants present. The session lasted one hour and ten minutes.

I started the meeting by providing a recap of the last meeting. I noted that we had begun to discuss the issue of trust and mentioned the strong feelings that the topic elicited. K.J. immediately offered that she felt comfortable talking about trust. She stated "I trust the group because I know whatever I say will stay in the group. I think I also trust the group because we all have a mental illness and understand each other". W.B. then indicated that she has trouble trusting people because of what has happened to her in the past. She reported "things that hurt me, it makes it hard for me to trust people now. I feel I can trust most people in the group". C.C. added thanks to everyone for being supportive at the last meeting. He stated he was feeling frustrated that the group was not talking about their feelings about "the group". He went on to state that he was having trouble trusting people and felt that this hurts his self-esteem because he can't tell the difference between being untrusting of others and being suspicious which is part of his illness. K.J. acknowledged C.C.'s feelings of not always being able to separate mistrust of people with suspiciousness as she too experienced similar thoughts and feelings. She agreed with W.B. that it is hard to trust people after you have been hurt. B.L. acknowledged what everyone was saying and then went on to say "but what about how we feel about each other right now?" Isn't that what we are talking about? He noted that he trusted the peer observer and me and he trusted others within the group. He noted that "if we can't trust each other right now, then what's the point of this group?" W.B. stated that she trusted people within the group but not outside of the group. B.L. stated "but we are talking about trust within the group". Wendy acknowledged this point with a head nod and then remained quiet. K.J. was quick to reaffirm her trust in the group members; again, drawing on the commonality they shared, specifically, being mentally ill. D.D. and R.M. remained silent during this exchange and kept their heads down maintaining no eye contact with any of the members. In discussing the development of group cohesion, Corey indicates "if trust has been established and if conflict and negative feelings have been expressed and worked through, the group becomes a cohesive unit" (1995, p. 220). As seen in the exchange of the members, there is open conflict and expression of negative feelings. The members are making efforts to deal with the conflict and to resolve the negative feelings that they are experiencing. This ends the session.

In summarizing the group, I noted that "over the last several meetings there has been a deepening sense of trust within the group. When people are comfortable and trust one another often conflict and negative feelings are expressed. In working through conflict and the negative feelings we have, a deeper sense of trust occurs and as a group, we become more cohesive or in other words, we gain strength to move forward. We are talking about feelings within the group and I think it would be useful it we continued to talk about feelings that are occurring within the group. Is that alright with everyone?" The group expressed approval by nodding their heads in agreement. At this point, I mentioned that two members of the group would be leaving us after this evening. I thanked them for their participation in the group. Other members of the group also thanked the leaving members for being part of the group. W.B. and C.C. made the suggestion that if they changed their minds they would be welcome to continue with the group for the last two planned sessions. To this, I remarked that I thought it would nice for them to continue with the group and if they chose they would be welcome to join us at the next meeting. They both indicated that they would consider it.

The behaviors exhibited in this session were that of a productive working group. In summarizing the working stage, Corey notes "members interact with one another freely and directly" (1993, p. 122). Members indicating a desire for the leaving participants is an indicator of a desire to maintain stability within the group and demonstrates the level of cohesiveness and concern that members have for each other.

All participants, including I, completed the self-assessment scale (Appendices J, K). Once completed, the assessments, again, were placed on a back counter in the room in no particular order or sequence.

The self-assessment scales completed by the members and me indicate most members felt understood and understanding of others. Two members felt misunderstood and not understanding of others. The majority of members felt independent. One member felt more dependent. Members were moderately to very close to one another and most were moderately to very involved. All members expressed a sense of being prepared and relaxed. All members perceived themselves to be leaning towards being cooperative. Most members felt they were passive and moderately to not helpful to others in the group.

Working Phase Continued

The fifth meeting of the group commenced on November 25, 1998 at the scheduled time with all participants present. The session lasted one hour and fifteen minutes.

To open the session, I stated "I would like to remind everyone that tomorrow is our last meeting together. As Corey indicates "unless leaders recognize their own feelings about termination and are able to deal with them constructively, however, they are in no position to help members deal with separation issues" (1995, p. 123). We have talked about many things related to self-esteem. We have discussed things that effect our self-esteem, illness being one, and the other was trust, which was a major topic for us in the group. It might be useful for us to use our final meeting tomorrow to talk about the feelings that have been expressed in the group over the number of meetings we have had. How does everyone feel about us using our last meeting to talk about those feelings?" Everyone readily agreed.

After a brief moment of silence, R.M. stated "I haven't said much, I have a hard time talking in a group. It is hard for me to talk about me feelings. I got sick when I was 23 and I have lost 12 years of my life. Everything I have lost, it is so hard to talk about it. I've never been much of a talker, I prefer to listen because I hope to learn from other people." I responded to R.M. was noting that "it is nice to hear you sharing your thoughts and feelings with the group. Often it is difficult to talk about personal thoughts and feelings, especially in a group. It sounds like you have lost many things to your illness?" C.C. provided support in indicating that he appreciated being able to talk about his feelings in the group. He then apologized to R.M. for attacking him in the last group meeting. R.M. responded by noting that with everyone else talking about how they feel it made it a little easier to let some things out. K.J. added that she felt sad that the group could not continue. She noted "I feel like we are just starting to talk about some important things, there are so many things we could talk about together as a group." B.L. added "we are doing something together right now, and it feels good to know that we can talk openly to each other. It would be nice if we had more groups together." This ended the fifth group.

In summarizing the session, I noted that "in our meeting together today, a lot of sharing has happened. There is a real sense of trust that has developed between all of us. I also am feeling sad that our meetings are ending. In an earlier meeting, we talked about not being able to trust others and how that affected our self-esteem. In our time together today, we talked about trusting one another within the group. With the level of sharing of thoughts and feelings and the support and care that everyone is showing we find that we are achieving a better sense and feeling about ourselves, which goes back to the original purpose of our group, to increase our feelings of self-esteem." In this session I used the skills of clarifying, reflecting, summarizing and introduced the notion of separation of the members after the final session of the group.

All participants, including I, completed the self-assessment scale (Appendices L, M). Once completed, the assessments, again, were placed on a back counter in the room in no particular order or sequence.

The self-assessment scales reveal that the group, overall, did not feel understood or understanding of others. There was a feeling of independence and closeness with half the members feeling very involved and the other half feeling uninvolved. Overall, members felt prepared and saw themselves as being cooperative. Most saw themselves as being active participants yet being not very helpful to others.

Termination Phase

The sixth and final meeting of the group commenced on November 26, 1998 at the scheduled time with six of seven participants present. The session lasted fifty-five minutes.

As we sat waiting for the seventh participant to arrive, members expressed curiosity and concern that the meeting would start without the seventh participant. After waiting for ten minutes beyond the scheduled time for the start of the group, the session commenced.

I began the session by stating "I would like to thank everyone for attending all the meetings of the group. We have all gained something from spending this time together. We started our meetings by talking about how others affected our self-esteem and now have come to talk about how we can assist one another in improving our self-esteem. We have moved from talking about trust in others to trusting ourselves which is quite an accomplishment...something we can all take pride in. For me, this had been a learning experience. In learning to trust others, I have discovered that I need to have trust in myself. Through our sharing of our thoughts and feelings, I have found that many things we think only I experience are actually shared by others. There has been an expression of a range of emotions from fear to anger to happiness and even sadness. Right now, I am wondering how others are feeling?" K.J. noted that it would be nice if we had more time together. She reported that she was going to miss the group, especially the support that she had received from the other participants. For me she stated "it is helpful to talk to other people about your feelings. It gives me some hope knowing that I can trust not only the staff at Pioneer House, but also the people that are here in the group." C.C. reported that for him the group meant learning to trust himself and to be more conscious of others. He indicated that reflecting on his behavior he discovered that he was domineering and self-centered. He stated "I guess the world does not revolve around me." I reflected that for C.C. the group meant learning to trust himself and to be aware of how other people were feeling. He continued by indicating that he learnt to listen more closely to others and to be more concerned for the people around him. B.L. indicated that he was clearer on when he should reveal his feelings to others. He noted that as "mental patients" he has trouble with boundaries and realizes that not everyone wants to listen to his thoughts and feelings. He noted that there is a time and a place for discussion of feelings and out on the street was not the place. He indicated that the group allowed him to say things that he was not able to say before. He noted that he could not rely on others to feel good about himself. He stated "I have to feel good about me and not rely on others to make me feel better about myself." W.B. noted that each group she attends she gets something more each time. She noted that this time she realizes that sometimes confrontation is necessary and it does not have to be hurtful. She feels that knowing this she might be able to be more assertive, something she noted she was lacking in. She stated "if I am more assertive then I will feel better about myself, then I would not feel like I am always being used or stepped on." I reflected that for her self-esteem meant being assertive without hurting the feelings of others. R.M. noted that he still feels uncomfortable talking in a group, and reported this is the first group he has attended where he spoke for himself. He noted that he still has not come to terms with being ill and until he does, his self-esteem will suffer. I stated "you made significant progress in this group. You clearly told the group what you were feeling and you were listened to and respected for participating." I noted that he, as everyone, could take what they learnt from the group and carry it forward with them to facilitate future growth. As noted by Corey one of the attributes desirable of the facilitator is "affirming a participant's capacity for self-determination" (1995, p. 277). Corey notes that "the belief that humans are forward moving towards self-actualization is to be reinforced as this is one of the goals of the group" (1995, p. 277). D.D. and T.M both offered no comments and remained silent as they had done throughout most of the sessions of the group.

In summarizing the group, I noted "we have been together on six occasions and a lot of things have happened during our meetings. We have talked about things that hurt our self-esteem, things that are necessary for us to develop self-esteem and we have discussed within the group what improves our levels of self-esteem. On an important note, I would like to mention that we are all individuals, all-different and unique. We all special talents, skills and abilities. We all have the potential to improve ourselves. Whether we improve ourselves by trusting ourselves, or being able to talk about our feelings in a group or developing trust in others, as unique people we all have something special to offer and that is ourselves. I want to thank everyone for participating in this group. Your participation has meant a lot to me. For me it means that you put a certain amount of trust in me in order to join the group and then share your thoughts and feelings with everyone here. I want to also extend my thanks to Debbie for rearranging her schedule to accommodate me so that this group could be done".

All participants, including I, completed the self-assessment scale (Appendices L, M). Once completed, the assessments, again, were placed on a back counter in the room in no particular order or sequence.

The final evaluation was a culmination of the participants perceptions of my performance as a facilitator and their participation as a member of the group.

In terms of my leadership, the group indicated that they understood me and found me to understand of others. They considered me competent as a facilitator and indicated that I was close to other members of the group. Overwhelmingly, they found me to be clarifying and concerned. The evaluations also note that they found me to be moderately to very involved in the group, was cooperative and helpful to others.

In terms of member participation, they saw themselves as being mutually supportive of one another. Overwhelmingly, they indicated they felt they were free of rules and independent of the leader. Overall, there was a high level of satisfaction with the group, they felt involved, relaxed and overwhelmingly, important. They saw themselves as being cooperative, helpful, and free of conflict and on the task of the group.

Having provided an analysis of observations of the group conducted, the next section is an analysis of my leadership strengths and areas for improvement. The basis for this analysis is the feedback received from the group members, peer observer and myself through the use of evaluative tools (Appendices E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N).

ANALYSIS OF LEADERSHIP

Strengths

As indicated in the peer evaluation of the facilitators leadership (Appendices N) and the group participants evaluation of the facilitators leadership (Appendices N) my strengths are that I was understood and understanding of the group members. They viewed me as being competent and close. They found my style cooperative, clarifying, concerned and helpful. All participants felt free from rules and restrictions. Interestingly, they noted, that overall, I was moderately prepared and just more than moderately active yet found me to be involved. The assessments of the group and the observer indicate that I facilitated the group within the parameters of the client-centered approach. In describing the client-centered approach, Corey states "the person-centered approach emphasizes, instead, certain skills as a necessary part of the facilitator's style:

Areas of Improvement

My strength in believing all of the assumptions of the client-centered approach is also a weakness and an area for improvement. In his discussion of the role of theory in developing a personal leadership style, Corey states "not to blindly follow any theory in totality" (1995, p. 82). In blindly following one theory, Corey indicates "when practitioners settle on one theory and don't recognize its limitations, they are likely to misuse it and to assume that it is an axiom and a set of proven facts rather than a tool for inquiry" (p. 82). He further notes that "the problem with true believers is that they limit their vision by screening out anything that doesn't fit their preconceived structures" (p. 82-83). Instead of using just one particular theory, Corey suggests that "one way to build a foundation for a personal leadership style is to know the diverse range of theories of group counseling and their implications for styles of leadership" (p. 82).

In conducting future groups, I would use qualitative evaluations instead of the quantitative evaluations used in the self-esteem group. As Gunderson, Mossing and Ting note "subjective evaluations of group experience are more meaningful than statistical measures of change because it is harder to get at attitudes, beliefs, feeling and behavior through statistical measures" (1997, p. 4-17).

Another area for improvement is further development of my level of confidence. Having little experience in the setting up and operation of groups leaves me with a limited degree of confidence in my skills. By learning other theories of group counseling and through practice and experience, my confidence level can be increased.

Having analyzed the group phases and process of the self-esteem group and having reviewed my areas of strength and areas for improvement, the next section provides an analysis of my perception of therapeutic group work.

PERCEPTION OF THERAPEUTIC GROUP WORK

This section identifies and discusses changes in my perception of therapeutic groups and group leadership based on my experience in developing, conducting, analyzing and evaluating my self-esteem group based on my studies of group.

The planning, development, conducting, analyzing and evaluating group work is complex requiring advanced skills and knowledge. Within planning, development, conducting, analyzing and evaluating group work numerous factors require consideration.

Psychiatric nurses are in a unique position to act as group leaders or facilitators in that many of the desired and necessary qualities are part of the psychiatric nurse's everyday skills. As Gunderson, Mossing and Ting note "there is a significant relationships between interpersonal and group skills" (1997, p. 6-8). In noting the significance of this interrelationship, Gunderson, Mossing and Ting note "in interactions with individuals you use selected communication skills depending on the needs of the interaction. When you lead a group these are the same tools to help you handle the behaviors which occur at each stage of the group process" (6-8).

In considering the development of a group, attention must be paid to the structure of the group. As Gunderson, Mossing and Ting note "group structure focuses on the kind or type of groups (formal or informal), the membership (the number types and whether it is closed or open), the setting of the group, the meetings (length, frequency and the duration of the group), norms, procedures, roles and single or co-leadership decisions" (1997, p. 4-4). Although the group I conducted, was a learning experience, in future groups I would look at the topic and the length of the meetings and the number of meetings that were available. The group I selected simply did not have sufficient time to do the work it should have done and that was one of the reasons why the group was extended two additional sessions.

In conducting the group, decisions must be made as to a theoretical framework or approach that will serve as the foundation for the work of the group leader or facilitator. As earlier noted by Corey "one way to build a foundation for a personal leadership style is to know the diverse range of theories of group counseling and their implication for styles of leading" (1995, p.82). Depending on the framework chosen to conduct the group, differing techniques and skills are required of the leader or facilitator. Yalom (cited in Gunderson, Mossing and Ting, 1997) "utilizes the here-and-now focus in interactive group psychotherapy. (Analytic group psychotherapy, psychodrama and self-help groups such as AA will use other techniques)" (p. 5-3).

Another consideration in group process in being clear about individual personal values and beliefs about group practice. In recognizing the importance of this consideration, Gunderson et al note "to begin thinking about leading or co-leading a group on your own, it is important that you are clear about your value and beliefs and think about their application to groups of people" (6-2). Congruence between you values and beliefs is essential to good group practice.

An important consideration in developing and conducting a group is whether you will have a co-leader functioning within the group. Gunderson, Mossing and Ting note "one advantage is that keeping track of the interactions and the members is divided between two people" (1997, p. 6-9). In considering a co-leader, Corey (cited in Gunderson, Mossing and Ting, 1997) indicate "because of the differences, that the two group leaders need to be clear about their intent and accept the unique perspective they gain from working together in such a way that members are not confused nor able to pit the leaders against each other" (p. 6-9).

In group work, as in any work done by the professional psychiatric nurse, consideration must be given to ethical and professional issues. Gunderson, Mossing and Ting note "as in any other practice situation, group work by professional nurses requires an understanding and application of ethical and professional principles" (1997, p. 6-14). They indicate "this includes an analysis of the concept and their application to the group situation as well as a synthesis of concepts and principles from both nursing and group work" (6-14). Ethical and professional considerations as noted by Gunderson et al (1997, p6-15) include the rights of participants to informed consent and a right to information regarding the purpose, their role and the role of the leader in the group.

CONCLUSION

In the facilitation of groups, there are no well-defined rules. As individuals are unique, so too are groups. Consideration of a variety of factors is necessary to ensure positive outcomes for the individual client and the group as a whole. Planning, conducting, analyzing and evaluating groups requires advanced skills, knowledge and education of the practitioner. Professional psychiatric nurses require educational and practical experience at an advanced level to function effectively as a group leader or facilitator.

This advanced level of practice can be achieved through an improved understanding of the group process, techniques and skills required and an advanced knowledge of the theoretical frameworks upon which group work is based.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

 

Beck, C. M., Rawlins, R. P. & Williams, S. R. (1984). Mental health - psychiatric nursing. St. Louis, Missouri: C.V. Mosby.

Corey, G. (1995). Student manual for theory and practice of group counseling (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole.

Corey, G. (1995). Theory and practice of group counseling (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole.

Gunderson, J., Mossing, J. Ting, B. (1997). Group process for psychiatric nursing practice (3rd ed.). New Westminster, British Columbia: Douglas College.

Johnson, B. S. (1986). Psychiatric-mental health nursing adaptation and growth. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.

Registered Psychiatric Nurses Association of British Columbia. (1995). Competencies expected of the beginning practitioner of psychiatric nursing (revised). Coquitlam, B.C.: Registered Psychiatric Nurses Association of British Columbia.

Rogers, C. R. (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

 

Appendices A

Self Assessment Scale

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times

 

Appendices B

End of Session Questionnaire

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

 

Appendices C

End of Session

Questionnaire

Group Lead/Facilitator

This questionnaire allows me at a participant and a group leader, to examine my thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how I participated and facilitated today's group.

The purpose of this assessment is to provide myself as a participant and facilitator with feedback as to my perceptions of how I responded, reacted and participated in the activities occurring in today's group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. I will circle the number best representing my impressions of today's group.

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  8. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  9. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful

 

Appendices D

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group yes
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them no
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them yes
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly yes and no
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them yes and no
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group yes
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group yes
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times yes

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group yes
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them no
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them no
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly yes
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them no
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group yes
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group yes
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times no

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group yes
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them yes
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them yes
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly yes
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them yes
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group yes
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group yes
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times yes

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group yes
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them yes
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them yes
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly yes
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them yes
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group yes
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group yes
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times yes

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group yes
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them yes
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them yes
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly yes
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them yes
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group yes
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group don't know
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times yes

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group no
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them no
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them no
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly no
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them no
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group no
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group yes
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times no

 

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group yes
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them yes
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them yes
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly yes
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them yes
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group yes
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group yes
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times yes

 

Appendices E

Self Assessment Scale

SESSION #1 COMPLETED

This assessment scale allows you, as a group participant, to determine how you respond in a group situation. This information is helpful to the group leader in assisting you to maximize your individual experiences in the self-esteem group.

In the available space next to each question, please indicate a yes or no response.

  1. I'm an active and contributing group member yes
  2. I'm willing to raise personal concerns and explore them in the group yes
  3. I share my perceptions of other members, telling them how I see them and how I am affected by them yes
  4. I listen attentively to others, and I respond to them yes
  5. I confront others with care, yet I do so directly yes
  6. As a group participant, I not only give direct feedback to others but am also open to feedback from them yes
  7. I'm willing to openly express my feelings about and reactions to what is occurring within the group yes
  8. I'm active in taking steps to create and maintain trust in the group yes
  9. I'm able to provide support to others in the group at appropriate times yes

 

Appendices F

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices F

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices F

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices F

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices F

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices F

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices F

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices G

End of Session

Questionnaire

Group Lead/Facilitator

SESSION #2 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows me at a participant and a group leader, to examine my thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how I participated and facilitated today's group.

The purpose of this assessment is to provide myself as a participant and facilitator with feedback as to my perceptions of how I responded, reacted and participated in the activities occurring in today's group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. I will circle the number best representing my impressions of today's group.

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  8. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  9. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful

 

Appendices H

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices H

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices H

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices H

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices H

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices H

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices H

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices I

End of Session

Questionnaire

Group Lead/Facilitator

SESSION #3 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows me at a participant and a group leader, to examine my thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how I participated and facilitated today's group.

The purpose of this assessment is to provide myself as a participant and facilitator with feedback as to my perceptions of how I responded, reacted and participated in the activities occurring in today's group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. I will circle the number best representing my impressions of today's group.

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  8. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  9. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful

 

Appendices J

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices J

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices J

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices J

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices J

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices J

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices J

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices K

End of Session

Questionnaire

Group Lead/Facilitator

SESSION #4 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows me at a participant and a group leader, to examine my thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how I participated and facilitated today's group.

The purpose of this assessment is to provide myself as a participant and facilitator with feedback as to my perceptions of how I responded, reacted and participated in the activities occurring in today's group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. I will circle the number best representing my impressions of today's group.

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  8. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  9. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful

 

Appendices L

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #5 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices L

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #5 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices L

End of Session Questionnaire

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices L

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #5 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices L

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #5 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices L

End of Session Questionnaire

SESSION #5 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices L

End of Session Questionnaire

This questionnaire allows you as a group participant to examine your thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how you participated in today's group.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the group leader with feedback as to your perceptions of how you responded, reacted and participated to activities that have occurred within the group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Please circle the number that best represents your impressions.

In today's session I could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Independent 1 2 3 4 5 dependent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  7. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  8. Competitive 1 2 3 4 5 co-operative
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful to others

 

Appendices M

End of Session

Questionnaire

Group Lead/Facilitator

This questionnaire allows me at a participant and a group leader, to examine my thoughts, feelings and perceptions of how I participated and facilitated today's group.

The purpose of this assessment is to provide myself as a participant and facilitator with feedback as to my perceptions of how I responded, reacted and participated in the activities occurring in today's group.

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. I will circle the number best representing my impressions of today's group.

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Involved 1 2 3 4 5 uninvolved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  8. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  9. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

PEER OBSERVER

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task

 

Appendices N

Completion

Of

Group

Questionnaire

SESSION #6 COMPLETED

FACILITATOR

This questionnaire allows you the participant to comment on the overall effectiveness of the group. It examines your overall thoughts, feelings and perceptions of your participation in the self-esteem group as well as your perceptions of the group leader. The observer of the group will complete this questionnaire and I will complete this questionnaire.

The purpose of this questionnaire is to provide yourself and the leader of the group with feedback as to your perceptions of your performance in the group as well as my performance in the group as its leader.

This questionnaire has two parts. The first part rates my performance as the leader of the self-esteem group. The second part rates your performance as a participant in the self-esteem group.

Section One

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, the group leader could best be described as:

  1. Understood by others 1 2 3 4 5 not understood by others
  2. Understanding of others 1 2 3 4 5 not understanding others
  3. Competent 1 2 3 4 5 incompetent
  4. Distant from others 1 2 3 4 5 close to others
  5. Confusing 1 2 3 4 5 clarifying
  6. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  7. Unprepared 1 2 3 4 5 prepared
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Active 1 2 3 4 5 passive
  10. Helpful 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  11. Concerned 1 2 3 4 5 unconcerned

Part Two

Beside each question is a rating scale from 1 to 5. Having completed sessions one to four of the self-esteem group, I could be best described as:

  1. Mutually supportive 1 2 3 4 5 conflicting
  2. Governed by rules 1 2 3 4 5 free from rules
  3. Independent of the leader 1 2 3 4 5 dependent on the leader
  4. Satisfied 1 2 3 4 5 dissatisfied
  5. Uninvolved 1 2 3 4 5 involved
  6. Tense 1 2 3 4 5 relaxed
  7. Important 1 2 3 4 5 unimportant
  8. Co-operative 1 2 3 4 5 competitive
  9. Helpful to others 1 2 3 4 5 not helpful
  10. In constant conflict 1 2 3 4 5 rarely in conflict
  11. Off the task 1 2 3 4 5 on the task